Deep tooth decay — causes, symptoms, treatment, prevention, complications
How to cure deep decay and is it possible to save the tooth?
Deep caries is an irreversible process of destruction of dental tissues caused by the activity of harmful microflora.
In the process of development of this pathology between the bottom of carious cavity and pulp is observed in the thinnest layer of normal dentite.
If not timely treatment, such education may cause the development of pulpitis, which eventually develops into periodontitis. When developing such a disease, the inflammatory process extends beyond the dental pulp with simultaneous formation of a purulent pouch near the top of the tooth root.
About the disease seriously
Essentially deep caries is considered the final stage of development of carious process, which is characterized by the destruction of hard dental tissues with an in-depth layers dentite.
Clinically this disease is determined by the nature of the destruction of the crowns of the teeth, accompanied by the occurrence of pain in the process thermal, chemical or mechanical influences.
Diagnosis of deep caries is conducted on the basis of complaints of patients, the data obtained as a result of the inspection and thermal diagnostics.
As methods of treatment of deep caries practiced the imposition of the special tabs, sealing and dissection of the cavity. This violation of the hard dental tissues demineralized and destroyed.
In dentistry there are three main stages of caries:
The causes and factors provocateurs development of the disease
Until today scientists have been able to achieve significant results in the study of the factors causing a disease such as caries.
Carious processes always propagate due to the effects on dental tissues by organic acids produced by cariogenic organisms separate, accelerated dissolution. For the formation of such defects requires the simultaneous combined effect of several factors.
For this reason, the carious process may not develop at all, regardless of what the composition of the microflora of the oral cavity in humans is almost the same.
The main factors responsible for the occurrence of dental caries include the following:
- Geographical. The development of the disease can influence the amount of precipitation, the mineral composition of the local soil and climatic conditions. For example, in the United States tooth decay is distributed in 99% of the population, and in Nigeria only 2%. A significant impact on the composition of the microflora in the oral cavity, the fluoride contained in drinking water. The more of this substance, the higher the resistance of dental tissues to the effects of harmful microflora. Excessive amount of fluoride can cause fluorosis development, contributing to the external changes and the formation of defects in dental tissues.
- Sex. The probability of caries among girls is much higher than men. This is due to the peculiarity of the female body. In a period when women breast-feed babies, they lose a large amount of vitamins and minerals. Besides the regular diet of women is composed of too many sweets.
- Professional. The people involved in the production process of acid and alkali resistance, working with confectionery, are more likely to development of carious processes in the oral cavity.
- Age. If you focus on the data obtained through statistical studies, it can be argued that the activity of development of carious process begins to increase from the age of two and 11 years may reach 60%, and the reduction observed since 40 years.
Classification of the disease
Classification of cavities according to black was used in 1896 with the purpose of establishing standard treatment procedures for specific disease symptoms. Under each individual class means a method of filling and preparation.
- the first class considered education carious pits, fissures and other natural depressions;
- the second class refers to carious formation in the contact surfaces;
- the third class includes education on the contact surface of the front teeth and canines that do not violate the integrity of their cutting edges;
- the fourth class involves a much more serious education on canines and incisors, tooth decay thus destroying the cutting edges of the teeth;
- caries at the fifth stage affects all the teeth in areas close to the gums;
- for the sixth characteristic of caries formation on the cutting surfaces of the canines and the front incisors and the molars mounds.
How to identify a violation
In the initial stages of the disease spots appear dark or white colors. The enamel is not destroyed and remains smooth.
The resulting small spots are removed with special dental instruments, followed by remineralization of dental tissues to caries formation did not arise in the future.
When the enamel begins to break down, pain occur from sudden changes of temperature and when chewing sour or spicy food. With an average caries the enamel layer is completely destroyed. In this step, you have to go to the dentist.
Deep dental caries can infect the internal tooth tissue and is distributed very widely.
The complexity or simplicity of the definition of the disease depends on the location of foci of infection and stage of their development. For the detection of caries formation at the initial stages of using special tools.
More complex shapes can be recognized already by using a probe or a conventional dental mirror. Diagnostics may be carried out in a domestic environment.
Multiple formations themselves are noticeable both visually and to the touch, causing pain upon contact with food products and, in some cases, the teeth start to hurt even the inhalation of air in frosty weather.
While caries may develop unnoticed to the stage where you have to remove the tooth, and sometimes to depulpation.
Therapy: overview of effective methods
Modern methods of diagnostics provide the ability to identify disease and significantly reduce the duration of treatment. Modern technologies allow to make the treatment of deep caries is simple and practically painless.
Many are accustomed to treat carious education people’s recipes. This is undesirable as not selecting the correct method of treatment can contribute to further development of dental flux or even pulpitis.
To get rid of such diseases is much more complicated. Professional treatment guarantees success even when it develops deep decay.
The procedure of treatment is complete removal of sections of a tooth affected with caries. This can be achieved with the use of a drill and the execution procedure of sealing.
In accordance with the group defeats the procedure for removal of carious formations may have the following features:
- The formation of the first stage are treated through remineralization. This process of saturation of the affected tooth enamel with fluoride and calcium.
- The surface form is treated in a standard way with the use of such technical means as the handpiece.
- Deep caries can be treated in one or more sessions. Mainly enough two visits to the dentist in order to completely get rid of this problem. During the first visit, removed all the tissues of a tooth affected by caries, laid out the drugs, and the treated area is sealed with a seal. To prevent the development of pulpitis, dentists have medical gasket. If the toothache has ceased, it is temporary filling is set to a constant.
Treatment of deep caries under the microscope — all the steps clearly:
Possible complications and prevention
If the caries is not treated for too long, the tooth nerve will eventually become to wither away. While in the cavity starts to develop the process of decay.
In such situations, the body is struggling with complications individually through the formation of granulomas, which after some time becomes larger and grows to a standard size of the cyst. Neglected cavities can cause pulpitis and periodontitis.
To prevent violations of dentists most often recommend the use of special tooth pastes that contribute to the saturation of the minerals of the tooth enamel, inhibits the development of bacteria and also remove soft plaque.
It should be noted that the use of fluoride, it is recommended only in regions where it contains less than 1.2 mg of the substance per litre of water.