What is a salivary gland and where it is: anatomy, functions, diseases and their treatment
All about salivary glands: anatomy, functions and diseases
Salivary glands located in the oral cavity and secrete saliva. Divided into large and small. The quality of the allocated secret are mixed mucous and protein.
Located in mucosa of tongue, cheeks, lips, palate and in the sublingual, submandibular, anterior and posterior lingual and parotid gland (largest of all).
Small salivary glands are located in the region of the tongue, palate, cheeks and lips. Large salivary glands, they are called steam rooms are located in the hyoid layer, the submandibular and the parotid.
The parotid gland is located in pozavcherashny fossa and consists of several lobules of the submandibular gland is located in the submandibular triangle hyoid – mylohyoid muscle.
On functional need
The action of the salivary glands:
- wetting of the oral cavity;
- liquefaction of food;
- the chewing of food;
- enhancing flavour;
- protection of teeth from various injuries (thermal, mechanical);
- cleansing of the oral cavity.
Of saliva in the major salivary glands. Numerous enzymes that are included with glands, are actively involved in the process of digestion. Enzymes are protein substances, their functions are very diverse and important, from the initial chemical treatment in the mouth food until the production of stomach juice.
From research it follows that the action of enzymes of salivary glands continues after being hit in the mouth food to half an hour.
Composition of saliva:
- enzymes (amylase, hydrolase, protease, maltase, phosphatase);
- inorganic substances: sulfates, anions, chlorides, phosphates;
- the cations of magnesium, potassium, sodium, calcium;
- trace elements (Nickel, iron);
- proteins (e.g., mucin, which glues the particles of food and helps in formation of food bolus); lysozyme (bactericidal activity).
Although the food in the mouth is a few seconds, but already there due to the presence of the salivary glands, begins the digestion process.
Complete breakdown of food occurs in the gastrointestinal tract.
Functions of saliva:
The saliva is secreted from a special secret, which allocates the parotid gland, small and large salivary glands. Mingling in the mouth with the other elements, the saliva begins to perform its direct functions.
In human saliva there are hundreds of thousands of microbes that fall into the mouth together with water, dust, smoke. Many germs have become resistant people, the body eliminates them, and useful microorganisms in the saliva is also accepted in this process active participation.
However, viruses mutate, and through unwashed or poorly washed hands of food in the mouth can get a lot of such viruses to which immunity in humans is not. It is therefore very important hand hygiene, oral cavity, fruits and vegetables.
Because any infection can cause a huge number of diseases of the oral cavity, the enamel of the teeth and gums, mucous membrane of the throat, and the whole organism.
In the world interesting
Normally, salivary glands produce per day approximately 2,200 mg of saliva. However, the number varies due to:
- Vasomotor nervousness, nervous disorders, and for strong excitation the production of saliva increases significantly.
- Sharp pleasant and appetizing smell of the food the quantity of saliva increases greatly, especially when people are hungry. About this say «salivating mouth flowed a river».
- Because of the age closer to 60 years the amount of secreted saliva decreases.
- Because eaten stale or substandard products salivation increased dramatically to more faster and harder to get rid of toxic substances, trapped in the body.
- Changes and salivation during sleep. Thus, during wakefulness, secretion of saliva about 15 times more than when the person is sleeping.
- Increases secretion of saliva and after it was elevated blood pressure. Not many know this, but when the pressure begins to drop, kicks in the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system and increases
discharge of saliva.
All the negative emotional excitement, severe pain, overexertion of the mental activity of the brain inhibit salivation occurs and the so-called lack of appetite.
However, even during conversations about food, the sound of the prepared dishes, at the sight of food, the person is triggered conditionally-reflex irritable and salivation increases.
Possible disorders and diseases
Pathology of the glands develop very rarely, for example, on the basis of the wounds, traumatic injuries of the face or scalp, congenital defect of the salivary glands (e.g., lack thereof):
- The most common damage is damage to the parotid glands when disturbed their integrity. Also pathology possible because of damage to the facial nerve or the carotid artery.
- Sialadenitis. Is an inflammatory process of the salivary glands, which, if not promptly treated, can lead to
stone formation in the ducts. This disease is the most exposed to the submandibular gland. The clinical picture is expressed in the tenderness of the salivary glands, thickening, swelling. Observed dry mouth and decreased salivation. Has a viral nature of the lesion (Staphylococcus, colibacteria).
- Sialoliths (salivary stones). The clinical picture is expressed in the tenderness of the salivary glands, the presence in the ducts of stones (sometimes up to several cm), thickening of the glands, swelling. Observed dry mouth, salivary ducts narrow, reduced salivation. In case of untimely diagnosis and treatment, the disease becomes chronic, the pain intensifying during the meal. The treatment gives a favorable prognosis with early diagnosis of this disease.
- Mumps. Is an infectious disease and occurs mainly due to inflammation of the salivary ducts. The mumps virus initially affects the salivary glands, then causing inflammation of other glands, for example, testicles in men. Often inflamed pancreas. The temperature rises, there is vomiting. Occurs intoxication.
- Benign tumors. Arise in the sublingual gland, parotid glands, the thicker cheeks (neurinoma, adenolymphoma). Treatment is surgical.
- Malignant tumors (cylindroma, sarcoma). On palpation palpable hard lumpy knot. It grows rather quickly. At the initial stage possible radiation therapy. At a late stage – surgery. Relapses occur in half of the cases. During the autopsy an abscess of the stones can come out with the pus. In the long diseases of the salivary glands inflammatory character or formation of stones possible oncologic complications.
About the possible causes and symptoms
Causes of inflammation:
- the narrowing of the duct of the parotid gland;
- viral infections (influenza, acute respiratory infections, SARS, measles, otitis media, tonsillitis, dental caries);
- the appearance of the flow tube from the compacted mixture of viruses and leukocytes;
- as a complication the professional activities of those engaged in glass, playing wind instruments.
Inflammation of the salivary glands are manifested by the presence of sometimes very high body temperature, sometimes a subfebrile increase in temperature.
The symptoms of the inflammatory process:
- the increase in body temperature;
- swelling, swelling and increased salivary glands, or the location of this gland;
- tenderness, pain when swallowing;
- the presence of pus coming out in the mouth;
- bad breath, dryness;
- redness at the site of inflammation.
A few words about the main
In the treatment of diseases of the salivary glands includes the use of those means which increase salivation, antibiotics, physiotherapy, rinsing. When purulent content and presence of stones, surgical intervention.
In the preventive purposes it is necessary to carefully monitor the oral hygiene, condition of teeth, tonsils.
When the slightest infection immediately carry out gargling in a timely manner to treat teeth, immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis and appointment of professional treatment.