What is deep bite: how to fix, consequences, prevention
What is the danger of the overbite and how to fix it
Deep bite is an anomaly of dental development, in which the incisors of the upper jaw come to the lower incisors by more than a third of the level of the crowns.
This pathology is most common in the practice of orthodontics and is almost 50 % of all cases.
In medicine, deep bite has a different terminology:
- deep front overlap;
- deep incisal overlap;
- traumatic occlusion;
- deep incisal occlusion;
- deep premaxillary disocclusion.
What’s the reason?
Depending on the vestibular deviation of the upper incisors occurs change the depth of tool overlap. Often deep bite may occur in combination with distal.
The reason for this is:
- uneven development of upper and lower jaws;
- a shortened mandibular Ramus;
- distal position of the dentition relative to each other;
- late teething;
- delayed appearance of permanent teeth.
Pathology the bite breaks the functionality of the jaw, reducing masticatory efficiency. Deteriorates aesthetic appearance of the lower part
the face is shortened, and the lips take the ugly situation.
The anomaly also affects the overload of the front teeth and injure the mucous membrane, which causes disease of the oral cavity, hindering the treatment process.
Classification of anomalies and violations
Deep bite has a different pattern of interaction of the teeth and is classified into several basic characteristics. The type of interaction of the anterior teeth are distinguished:
- vertical violation (overlapping of the lower part of the jaw);
- horizontal violation.
The type of interaction between the lateral incisors there are two main forms of malocclusion:
- The neutral form is almost never stands out visually. Even in adulthood a person with a finally formed the bones of the face pathology hard to see. Specialists determine deviations in the complete overlap of the upper teeth bottom and to the presence of the supramental fold.
- The distal form, on the contrary, strongly are distinguishable externally as in children and adults. Pronounced asymmetry of the face is accompanied by abnormally small chin, as if shifted to the side of the neck. When you smile, usually, and exposed a significant portion of the gums.
The causes of disease and risk factors
The improper development of the bite can influence the following factors:
- genetic predisposition;
- transferred a pregnant woman is a serious infectious disease;
- generic complications.
In addition, the anomaly can be caused by various diseases at an early age:
- disorders of the respiratory and endocrine systems;
- diseases of ENT-organs;
- problems with the gastrointestinal tract;
- disorders of metabolic processes.
Also the development of pathology contribute to dysfunction of locomotor apparatus:
- incorrect posture;
- disabilities of the spine;
- hereditary diseases of bone and connective tissue.
In infancy causes of the anomalies can be bad habits, the child constantly sucking his thumb or a pacifier.
Among other reasons of pathology are:
- traumatic dislocation of the jaw or damage to the function of the temporomandibular joint;
- the absence of some teeth, contributing to involuntary tilting of adjacent teeth towards the defect;
- incorrect dental treatment;
- the development of gingivitis and periodontitis.
How to identify a violation
Adult easier to identify if he has problems with the bite or not, than the child. Experts identify dentofacial anomaly a number of characteristic symptoms:
- the enamel of the front teeth is prone to rapid attrition due to the increased load on them, which usually leads to the formation of dental caries;
- chewing function is broken and has problems with chewing and swallowing (especially in young children);
- may appear disorders of the respiratory system;
- dyslalia or paralalia (speech disorders);
- the proportions of the face;
- inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth due to the constant mechanical action of the teeth.
Detection of at least one of these symptoms in children or adults is the reason for seeking treatment the orthodontist. The sooner you get diagnosed, the easier will pass treatment.
It is easier to correct deep bite in children under the age of 13, as the position of the teeth not fully formed.
About possible problems
Deep bite not only has a negative impact on facial aesthetics, but also greatly damages the entire human body. The presence of a defect causes the following problems:
- violation of conversational speech;
- damage to the mucous membranes of the mouth that causes gingivitis and periodontitis;
- increased load on the front teeth, negatively affect the tooth enamel;
- aesthetical defects;
- difficulty breathing and swallowing processes;
- regular headaches.
Specialists diagnosed the abnormal development of the jaw according to several key criteria and using additional methods of examination.
- oral questioning to identify issues associated with the anomaly and evaluation of standard of living with this diagnosis;
- General clinical examination;
- the study of diagnostic models of the patient;
Prophylaxis and therapy of disorders
Prevention and correction of deep bite is recommended at an early age, not yet fully formed dental system.
To correct the defect is possible and in a later age, however, it requires more effort and the duration of treatment will increase significantly.
Treatment of distal occlusion shape is to curb the development process of the upper jaw, to give a chance to the bottom row of teeth to develop freely.
For this purpose use special orthodontic design:
- trainer (soft elastic tyre, adaptable to any jaw);
- nazuna Capa;
- the bracket system on the front arches (for a more Mature age).
Temporary systems require careful maintenance, is to regularly removing the unit to clean it.
Anterior bite is correct by stimulating the development of the upper row of teeth by curbing the growth of the lower jaw. For the treatment of this disease used the same design as deep bite. In addition, at an early age for the formation of a correct bite additionally performed General exercises of muscles involved in the formation of the dentition.
Helps to restore the normal occlusion of systematic massaging of the gums with slight pressure on the teeth.
In adulthood, methods of treatment using trainers or cap is ineffective, therefore, to correct the bite immediately install the braces, or carried out a correction of the anomaly surgically. In modern medicine, deep bite successfully treated by laser.
This innovation allows you to effectively and in a short time to cope with the illness. The problem is solved in just one visit after prior consultation doctor orthodontist.
Late treatment deep bite can trigger unpleasant complications. The most common bruxism (teeth grinding).
Constant clenching and grinding the teeth between them can adversely affect tooth enamel and jaw joints. In some cases, the habit persists even after correction of the bite, so it is recommended as early as possible to seek treatment to avoid its occurrence.
Malocclusion, due to the constant load on the teeth, contributes to loosening of the teeth to 30-40 years. Also, it may result in the exposure of tooth necks and the appearance of gaps between teeth.
Deep bite can cause temporomandibular joint disorders. The disease is accompanied by frequent attacks of headaches, a distinctive click at the moment of mouth opening and pain of the masticatory muscles.
Correction of malocclusion by using braces rather lengthy process that can take several years.
Therefore, in order to avoid serious problems it is recommended that at an early age to prevention that promote the prevention of functional disorders.
- monitoring the position of the baby during feeding.
- control of the position of the child during sleep;
- weaning from the bad habits of sucking fingers or other items;
- the generation of the correct posture;
- timely treatment of caries and other dental diseases;
- prevention of rickets and bone diseases.
To the child it was easier to observe the preventive measures to prevent violations, it is necessary to follow simple recommendations:
- to obtain the necessary load, the child may offer solid to chew apples, carrots or crackers;
- regularly drive the child to the dentist for preventive examination for early detection of any damage to the teeth.
To cope with the curvature of the teeth is impossible, therefore, in any degree it is highly recommended to consult a specialist.
The orthodontist will conduct a thorough investigation, x-rays, examine your mouth and the nerve endings. Further, depending on the extent of the anomalies, the specialist will prescribe the necessary treatment.